TMS-Propagation of TMS-induced EEG activity in a patient with a disconnection syndrome

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a widely used research and clinical tool that can modulate and interact with brain activity. One method for elucidating its mechanisms of action is the coupling with electroencephalography (EEG). Within the CNBS laboratory, I became an expert in the TMS-EEG coupling I contributed to a book chapter providing a step-by-step guide to online TMS-EEG experimentation, allowing extracting meaningful information from EEG recordings contaminated by important artifacts. Moreover, the chapter survey insights in cognitive and clinical neurosciences that have been gained from the TMS-EEG combination (Vernet and Thut, 2014). A comprehensive guide to TMS-EEG research can be also found in a more recent article (Farzan et al., 2016).

We used this coupling for several studies exploring the brain networks subtending conscious perception in 3D space (Vernet et al., 2014a), brain reactivity and connectivity in patients with epilepsy (Vernet et al., 2012a; Shafi et al., 2015) or disconnection syndromes (Pereira et al., 2012) and brain plasticity in healthy populations (Vernet et al., 2013) and in patients with traumatic brain injuries (Bashir et al., 2012).

Finally, brain stimulation can be also used to induce brain oscillations and synchronization. Recent intracranial stimulation and EEG recordings in epileptic patients demonstrated the ability of rhythmic stimulation to induce specific rhythms in stimulated areas, opening the possibility to explore the causal role of brain oscillations in cognition (Amengual et al., 2017)

References

  • Amengual JL, Vernet M, Adam C, Valero-Cabré A. Local entrainment of oscillatory activity induced by direct brain stimulation in humans. Scientific Report. 7:41908
  • Bashir S, Vernet M, Yoo WK, Mizrahi I, Theoret H, Pascual-Leone A (2012) Changes in cortical plasticity after mild traumatic brain injury. Restor Neurol Neurosci 30:277-282.
  • Farzan F, Vernet M, Shafi M, Rotenberg A, Daskalakis ZJ, Pascual-Leone A (2016). Characterizing and modulating brain circuitry through transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography. Frontiers in Neural Circuits. 10:73
  • Pereira AC, Schomer A, Feng W, Najib U, Yoo WK, Vernet M, Alexander MP, Caplan LR, Pascual-Leone A (2012) Anterior Disconnection Syndrome Revisited using Modern Technologies. Neurology 79:290-291.
  • Shafi M, Vernet M, Klooster D, Barnard M, Romatoski K, Westover M, Christodoulou J, Gabrieli J, Whitfield-Gabrieli S, Pascual-Leone A, Chang B (2015) Physiological consequences of abnormal connectivity in a developmental epilepsy. Ann Neurol. 77(3):487-503
  • Vernet M, Thut G (2014) Electroencephalography during Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: current modus operandi. In: Neuromethods: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (Pascual-Leone A, Horvath JC, Rotenberg A, eds).
  • Vernet M, Brem AK, Farzan F, Pascual-Leone A (2015) Synchronous and opposite roles of the parietal and prefrontal cortices in bistable perception: A double-coil TMS-EEG study. Cortex 64C:78-88.
  • Vernet M, Bashir S, Yoo WK, Perez JM, Najib U, Pascual-Leone A (2013) Insights on the neural basis of motor plasticity induced by theta burst stimulation from TMS-EEG. Eur J Neurosci 37:598-606.
  • Vernet M, Walker L, Yoo WK, Pascual-Leone A, Chang BS (2012a) EEG onset of a seizure during TMS from a focus independent of the stimulation site. Clin Neurophysiol 123:2106-2108.